Agriculture has progressed through several processing steps of innovation in Nigeria as an indigenous activity. This progress is a result of government policies and the state’s commitment to agriculture, which either diminishes or magnifies the sector’s impact on the country.
This article discusses the various agricultural policies and programs that have been implemented in Nigeria to help the country’s agricultural sector flourish. It looks at the effects of programs like Operation Feed the Nation, the Green Revolution, and Agricultural Development Projects. This will be determined by showcasing the country’s agricultural policies.
AGRICULTURAL POLICIES IN NIGERIA: ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW
Nigerian agricultural policy have seen transformations at various stages of the country’s growth, from colonial times through the post-colonial era of 1963. The country followed a surplus extraction approach in the early post-colonial period. This was later changed to an export-led policy, which resulted in a boost to the country’s economy. The western region was recognized for cocoa exports, while the northern zone was noted for groundnut exports and the southeastern region for oil palm.
When Nigeria gained independence, the country’s agriculture strategy leaned more toward imports than exports. This is due to the government’s failure to make persuasive efforts to enforce many of its agricultural rules and policies.
WHAT SHOULD BE DONE?
In order to implement the above-mentioned Nigerian agricultural policies, it is necessary to give farmers with the appropriate equipment and make machines obtainable to effectively reduce some of the issues they face during the farming process. The government seeks to strengthen husbandry and provide seed stocks. It will also help if improved seeds are available that can grow quickly and resist illness.
The Agricultural Development Program (ADP) was established in order to provide answers to farmers’ queries and concerns. The ADP, on the other hand, is currently a shadow of its former glory.
Nigeria’s agricultural development is hampered by a lack of biotechnology, development, and research. Biotechnology allows us new methods of doing things while also increasing the quality and quantity of food produced.
Another problem impeding agricultural growth in Nigeria and hindering complete implementation of agricultural programs is political reticence.
CAUSES OF FORMATION OF AGRICULTURAL POLICIES IN NIGERIA
The following are some of the primary causes for the formation of agricultural policies in Nigeria:
- Complete self-sufficiency in all basic food goods, with a focus on those foods that account for a significant portion of Nigerian foreign exchange.
- Increase in the quantity of agricultural-related raw materials produced in order to make them adequate for the industrial sector and eliminate the need for importation of such raw materials;
- Increase in the quantity of exportable products produced in order to increase the amount of foreign exchange Nigerians earn on such products in order to diversify the economy through an increase in the export base.
- Modernization of all parts of agriculture in order for agriculture to meet the needs and expectations of other sectors in order to enhance the economy’s growth.
- Agricultural growth provides more rural job options. This also creates job opportunities, which helps to lower the unemployment rate.
- Protection of all resources on and below the earth, as well as the improvement and protection of arable lands useful for farming.
- Creating the required institutions to meet the requirements of farmers and develop agriculture.
Moreover, the establishment of required administrative organs to aid in the development of the country’s agricultural potential.
FULL LIST OF AGRICULTURAL POLICIES IN NIGERIA
Nigeria’s agricultural policies are listed below:
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION, TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSFER POLICY
The purpose of this policy is to promote the dissemination of useful and practical agricultural knowledge with the goal of improving farmer welfare through the application of such information.
AGRICULTURAL CREDIT POLICY
The paucity of cash available to farmers, particularly those from rural areas, has been cited as a major source of concern for the growth of agriculture in Nigeria. The Agricultural Credit Policy was created in response to the crisis, with the main goal of assembling appropriate investment funds that are conveniently accessible to farmers.
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT MARKETING POLICY
This program aims to promote agricultural exports and the effective distribution of seasonal agricultural output at affordable rates throughout the year. To do this, the government offers incentives to agricultural exporters and conducts inspections of products to be exported, among other measures.
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH POLICY
Creation of improved seedlings, seeds, and fingerlings capable of high yield, and development of more effective ways for farmers to engage in farming tasks such as planting, harvesting, processing, and storing farm produce are among the goals of the Agricultural Research Policy.
AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION POLICY
The main goal of the Agricultural Mechanization Policy is to replace drudgery with mechanical power in order to reduce the toil of human labor in the agriculture industry. The utilization of mechanical equipment lowers the entire cost of agricultural produce significantly.
AGRICULTURAL COMMODITY STORAGE POLICY
Agricultural Commodity Storage Policy goals include ensuring national food security through the use of storage programs that provide year-round food availability. The strengthening of both inter-seasonal and inter-year pricing stability is another essential goal of this policy.
LAND RESOURCES POLICY
This strategy focuses on the rehabilitation of areas that have been impacted by natural disasters such as erosion, drought, and flooding, as well as the deployment of efficient protection measures to avoid the spread of the disaster to unaffected areas.
PEST CONTROL POLICY
The Pest Control Policy has as one of its goals the protection of Nigerians and animals against disease vectors. They also attempt to prevent and monitor economic pests that have the potential to harm agricultural production.
WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT POLICY
This agricultural policy was formed for a variety of reasons, including the development of underwater and surface water resources, dam construction and maintenance, pollution management, and erosion control.
AGRICULTURAL COMMODITY PROCESSING
The goal of this program is to preserve perishable agricultural produce, which invariably lowers waste and price fluctuations caused by agricultural produce’s seasonality.
AGRICULTURAL MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING POLICY
The goal of this strategy is to provide Nigerian farmers with extension workers who are trained in all sectors of agriculture, from vocational to professional levels. The Agricultural Manpower Development and Training Policy is in charge of regulating extension worker training and even providing cash for additional training.
AGRICULTURAL INVESTMENT AND MANAGEMENT ADVISORY SERVICES POLICY
This strategy aims to encourage private sector investment in agriculture by creating an environment that is favorable to their success. The policy is in charge of coordinating management services for commercial farming organizations such as small and medium-scale farmers.
AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE POLICY
This policy was put in place to ensure that Nigerian farmers are safeguarded from unanticipated natural disasters. The Agricultural Insurance Policy benefits Nigerian farmers in a variety of ways thanks to procedures put in place by the Federal Government.
- Agricultural Cooperatives Policy
- Agricultural Statistics and Data Bank Policy
- National Fisheries Policy
- Agricultural By-Product Policy
- Forest Products and Wildlife Policy
- Industrial Crop Production Policy
- Rural Infrastructure Policy
The agricultural industry is of utmost significance to Nigeria as it perks the farmer, society, and country at large. Agriculture provides food for an ever-increasing population, employment, revenue for farmers, foreign exchange contributors, and raw materials for businesses, to name a few benefits. Nevertheless, some obstacles stand in the way of the agriculture sector’s economic contribution. As a result, agricultural policies are developed to bridge the holes and encourage the agricultural sector’s growth.